Telepharmacy is a most rapidly expanding area of transmission and communication within biopharmaceutical care delivery, mostly in rural areas. Telepharmacy has been embrace to supply pharmaceutical services to underprivileged areas and discussing the situation of pharmacist shortage. It can be used as a tool to decrease the load or burden on the medical management and increase drug dispensing welfare in community pharmacies. The motive of this review is to find out how telepharmacy is nowadays being practiced within society, its success, and how it is being modulated across the United States and also to evaluate the influence of telepharmacy services on patient welfare, cost. Advantages and restrictions of telepharmacy are explained as well. There are three class of pharmacy practice, namely prescription and resolution of drug therapies, remote education and handling of “special pharmacy”, support to clinical services. In general, distinct telepharmacy services were accompanied and successful by a fulfilment of their targets. Nowadays the insufficiency of health employees, and pharmacists is a challenging topic that the health system have to face. The use of new telecommunication technology like telepharmacy is a promising approach to resolve these problems.
Keywords: Telepharmacy, Pharmaceutical Care, Telemedicine, Technology, Remote.
N-95 masks undoubtedly provide the most effective protection against minute particulates including the novel corona virus, but due to the extreme shortage of supply it’s reserved for the front-line health care personals. Surgical masks can filter large droplets and big particulate mattes but still it’s not advisable for use to the common public, in such a scenario wearing a universal cloth face mask in combination with meticulous hand hygiene and social distancing can provide a complementary protection and can significantly block the spread of infection. Face mask wearing can block or filter airborne virus-carrying particles through the working of colloid and interface science. This paper assesses current knowledge behind the design and functioning of face masks by reviewing the selection of materials, mask specifications, relevant laboratory tests, and respiratory virus transmission trials, with an overview of future development of reusable masks for the general public. This review highlights the effectiveness of face mask wearing in the prevention of COVID-19 infection. Wearing medical masks when not indicated may cause unnecessary cost, procurement burden and create a false sense of security that can lead to neglecting other essential measures such as hand hygiene. Furthermore, using mask incorrectly may hamper its effectiveness to reduce the risk of transmission. Masks are part of a comprehensive package of measures to suppress transmission and save lives: the use of a mask alone is insufficient to provide an adequate level of protection. In areas in widespread transmission, where physical distancing of at least 1 meter cannot be achieved, fabric masks should be considered for use in public settings, such as public buses and trains, shops, grocery stores and workplaces.
Keywords: COVID-19, Face Mask, N-95 masks, Disposal of Masks.
In late November, a pandemic was experienced by humanity. COVID-19 is brought on by the novel corona virus, or nCov-19. In the months of December 2019, Wuhan City, China, announced the first case. Convalescent plasma (CP) therapy is anticipated to boost the survivable rate even though there are no specific medications that have been approved for its treatment yet. Many infectious diseases have been treated and prevented by plasma therapy, a traditional adaptive immunotherapy. A viable treatment option for COVID-19 rescue may be plasma therapy. High neutralising antibody titres COVID-19 survivors may make excellent sources for plasma donations. Convalescent blood products’ potential for clinical benefit and risk in COVID-19 are still unknown. The role, advantages, and efficacy of plasma therapy are discussed in this review for the study of COVID 19 and plasma therapy.
Over the Counter (OTC) products can be called some of the cosmetics with drug claims and some others that contain chemicals with the ability to change the physiology and biochemistry of in particular skin and nails. A product is either a cosmetic or a medicine, according to the Cosmetic Directive of the EU. In Europe, cosmetics are considered to be several products which are listed under OTC in the US. With the latest changes in the EU Cosmetic Legislation, the regulation of cosmetics is tighter than that of cosmetics in the USA. Similar labeling standards to those of the US Cosmetic Regulations are required by the VI Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive. The Cosmetic Directive also mandates that a ‘Dossier’ be prepared and made available for each product to be put on the market, including, but not limited to, details on the safety evaluation and evidence of the product’s effectiveness. The production, distribution and importation of cosmetics are not permitted in the US and the EU, although they are licensed in Japan. Under the Pharmaceutical Affairs Rule, cosmetics are regulated. They can be known as narcotics, quasi-drugs, or cosmetics. The ones that have a ”mild effect” on the body are quasi-drugs. Cosmetics are categorized into a group of goods and are approved accordingly. Although the criteria for labeling and dossiers could still cause problems, harmonization of the US Cosmetic Regulations may be possible with EU regulations. However, the analysis of the harmonization measures taken by the US, the EU and Japan shows that, in order to achieve harmonization, Japan needs a more serious commitment.
Keywords: Cosmetics, Over the Counter (OTC) Drugs, Cosmetic Directive, Quasi-Drugs, EU Regulations.