Nanoparticles are used in a number of fields, including antimicrobials, additives, paints, biosensors, and cosmetics. Because of their multifunctional property and intrinsic molecular property, inorganic nanoplatforms are an appealing tool in a range of biomedical applications. They assist in efficient diagnosis, imaging, continuous monitoring, and successful therapy. Bio-reduction of inorganic nanoparticles (INPs) using bacteria and other microorganisms has recently gained popularity due to several advantages over chemical synthesis methods, including low cost, fewer toxic chemicals used, biocompatibility, and ease of synthesising. The use of microbes is an excellent way to deal with the development of environmentally safe and cost-effective nanoparticles. Advancement of nanoparticles union by improved generation of society growth will provide a strong opportunity for the most extreme manufacture, and it will be extremely useful for a variety of nanoparticles-based applications.
Biomedicine has its own set of guidelines for implementing emerging technology for human use, which is understandably conservative. Increased research has helped in the reformulation of existing drugs as well as the creation of new ones. Nanotechnology changes medicine’s toxicity, solubility, and bioavailability profile, among other items. However, there is still a long way to go in terms of full regulation, beginning with the development of consistent definitions across the board. The medicinal products come in a wide variety of forms and structures, and they’ve been used to treat a wide range of acute and chronic diseases. Furthermore, ongoing research is increasingly leading to the emergence of more sophisticated nanostructured designs, which necessitates a detailed understanding of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties, which are determined by chemical composition and physicochemical properties, poses additional regulatory challenges.
The modernization of the drug delivery system is a continuous process. Any delivery strategy that targets a molecule to delivery, Solubility, or a specific location is always welcome. This need can be met with polymers, Crosslinkers a specific drug delivery technology that can easily target the medicine at the site of action while maintaining efficacy and quality. Few new medications can be effectively given using traditional dose forms. Nanosponge technology has been developed to aid in the regulated release of drugs over time, reducing systemic toxicity and severe reactions. Nanosponges are microscopic sponges roughly the virus’s size (250 nm-1 µm) with cavities that can be filled with a range of hydrophilic and hydrophobic medications and then placed into a pharmaceutical dosage form such oral, parenteral, topical, or inhalation. The technology of nanosponges has been extensively researched for delivery of the drugs for oral, topical and parenteral administration. They can be prepared by different methods of preparation. The invention of nanosponge has shown to be a significant step forward in overcoming issues such as drug toxicity, low bioavailability, physiochemical instability, and patient unacceptability. It can be used as a shipper for biocatalyst in the transport and release of enzymes, vaccines, proteins, and antibodies. In this review, we look at nanosponges in general, their advantages and disadvantages, mechanisms, factors influencing nanosponges, method of preparation and different pharmaceutical dosage of formulations, evaluation parameters and applications.
Keywords: Nanosponge, Controlled Release, Solubility, Targeted Drug Delivery, Mechanism.
Abstract: Nanoparticles are becoming key components in a extended type of applications and Nanoparticles are mostly used extensively for applications in drug discovery, drug delivery, diagnostics and for many others in medical field. In development of different dosage forms to deliver the drugs have been in use, the evolution and modern trends in the science and technology help the pharmaceutical companies to focus on the novel approches. Nanotechnology is an extremely powerful emerging technology to modify the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics activity of the drug medication system like nanoparticles has physical application. Scientists are to make traces in the field of nanotechnology to reformulate the existing essential drugs to minimize the harmful effects and to increase the therapeutic efficacy. This article on NDDS seeks to provide that advances in the field of NDDS are helpful in overcoming various problems and challenges with the current trends, the technology and science have future prospects that enable the healthcare professionals to develop even better applications to serve the human kind and also Disease detection, therapy and diagnosis can be done by advanced nanotechnology. Use of nanotechnology in nano-vaccine, targeted drug delivery system, Green Nanotechnology and Glucose Nanosensors will be discussed.