Erythrocyte-mediated drug delivery has been reported with therapeutic enzymes and antiviral agents to enhance therapeutic efficacy, minimize side effects, and serve as circulating depots for controlled drug release, drug targeting, parasitic disease treatment, hepatic tumour treatment, and the removal of toxic agents, among other applications. The benefits of using erythrocytes in drug delivery include a high degree of biocompatibility, full biodegradability, lack of toxic substance, controllable life-span, and decreased drug side effects, to name a few. Many medications with various side effects, such as aspirin, steroid, and cancer drugs, are decreased by resealed erythrocytes. Biopharmaceuticals, therapeutically important peptides and proteins, nucleic acid-based biologicals, antigens, and vaccines are just a few of the pharmaceuticals that have recently been targeted for delivery through carrier erythrocytes. Erythrocyte-based drug delivery systems with the potential to provide managed and site-specific drug delivery will be built in the future for disease management. To use the potentials of erythrocytes in passive as well as active drug targeting in diseases like cancer, a significant amount of useful work is needed. Because of their immense capacity, erythrocytes are currently the most effective carriers in novel drug delivery systems. Hence the present article is reviewed about isolation of erythrocytes, method of drug loading and applications of RSE.
Drugs can be delivered both systemically and locally through the oral cavity. Buccal drug delivery is a potential topic for further investigation with the goal of systemic distribution of orally ineffective medications as well as a viable and appealing alternative for noninvasive delivery of powerful protein and peptide therapeutic molecules. The oral route has long been the most convenient and widely used method of medication administration. The necessity for a safe and effective buccal permeation absorption enhancer is critical for the buccal medication delivery field’s future success. The goal of a buccal drug delivery system is to accomplish site-specific drug release on the mucosa, which entails drug absorption across the mucosal barrier and into the systemic circulation. Absorption through the buccal mucosa prevents active drug loss due to presystemic metabolism by overcoming premature drug degradation caused by enzyme activity and the pH of the gastro intestinal tract. It is possible to produce fast acid hydrolysis and therapeutic plasma concentrations of the medication. Natural polymers have an important role in the pharmaceutical industry. Mucoadhesive polymers are used to increase drug delivery by increasing the contact time and residence time of dosage forms with mucous membranes.
Sphingosomes are vesicular drug delivery systems in which sphingolipid bilayer membranes fully enclose an aqueous volume. Sphingosomes can be utilized for therapeutic, cosmetic and diagnostic purpose for the delivery of active to the target site or organ. Oral, parenteral, inhalation, transdermal, and other routes of administration are available. Sphingolipids found in sphingosomes provide a range of benefits to these vesicular systems, including passive and active targeting mechanisms. Bioeffector molecules such as sphingolipids are being produced to control cell growth, proliferation, and anticancer therapeutics. Because of their usefulness in improving the in vivo delivery of various chemotherapeutic agents, biological macromolecules, and diagnostics, sphingosomes have become a hot subject. The focus of this analysis is on the use of sphingosomes in drug delivery technology.
Keywords: Sphingosomes, Sphingolipid, Bioeffector Molecules, Vesicular Systems, Drug Delivery.
Abstract: Niosomes are a novel drug delivery system, in which the medication is encapsulated in a vesicle. The vesicle is composed of a bilayer of non-ionic surface active agents and hence the name niosomes. The niosomes are very small, and microscopic in size. Their size lies in the nanometric scale. Although structurally similar to liposome’s, they offer several advantages over them. Niosomes have recently been shown to greatly increase transdermal drug delivery and also can be used in targeted drug delivery, and thus increased study in these structures can provide new methods for drug delivery. In recent years, niosomes have been extensively studied for their potential to serve as a carrier for the delivery of drugs, antigens, hormones and other bioactive agents. Besides this, noisome have been used to solve the problem of insolubility, instability and rapid degradation of drugs.
Keywords: Niosomes, Small Unilamellar Vesicles, Encapsulation, Microfludization, Drug Carriers..